The Impact of Television (Media) on Child Development (2023)

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“Television viewing hurts the development of children under three years old and poses a certain number of risks, encouraging passivity, slow language acquisition, over-excitedness, troubles with sleep and concentration as well as dependence on screens......even when it involves channels specifically aimed at them. (High Audiovisual Council 2008)

Why is screen viewing so damaging in the first three years? New studies show specific results including changes to brain cell structure and function with health implications which span the lifetime.

The infant arrives in the world completely dependent on its care givers - In the course of the first three years three major developmental challenges must be mastered - walking, speaking and thinking (memory, consequence). Thinking and knowing brings with it the beginnings of a sense of self as separate from the world and from other people.

The young child is completely open and receptive to the sensory world. He/she cannot shut off to unwanted stimuli of any kind. The love of parents and other close caregivers surrounds children to support and shield them through the huge growth and development which takes place at this time.

When we describe the impact of the sensory world on child development it is helpful to use the 12 senses model which was proposed by Rudolf Steiner prior to 1923. He spoke of four will senses which have their most important development during the first seven years. These are the senses of touch, life, movement and balance. They are the senses which inform us about our own body. Then there are four senses which allow us to perceive the world around us which bring aspects of antipathy and sympathy to our experience. These are the senses of smell, taste, vision and warmth. Finally we have four senses which facilitate our interaction with other people. Our ability to learn, to share ideas, to be truly human, depends on our senses of hearing, word, thought and the sense of ego.

During the first years we develop the will senses which affirm our sense of self.

(Video) The Impact of Media on Child Development

TOUCH is nurturing, calming, defining and vital to development. Babies who are not lovingly touched and nurtured do not grow or thrive. Screen viewing is passive and has no tactile component. Children are always irritable after screen viewing and need to fight and bump into the world to re find their bodily self.

The LIFE sense is the sense of well being and encompasses all the rhythmic aspects of our body and our activity. The infant’s heart beat and breathing mature throughout childhood. The digestive tract must mature so that it can transition from milk to solid food; sleeping and waking need to be established. The child’s brain is only gradually building connections between actions, emotions and meaning. Studies now show that children exposed to screen viewing from infancy have delayed development, sleeping is disturbed, excitably or passivity is induced and crucial brain pathways, associated with socialization and problem solving, are underdeveloped. Rhythms associated with eating and daily routines give way to the demand of the screen programme.

The results of studies also show that background TV exposure is as damaging as direct viewing.

The MOVEMENT sense arises from information from muscles and joints and is used to inform the brain where the legs, arms and fingers are so that we can learn to move with skill. The infant must ‘grow down’ into its limbs, down to the toes and the fingertips in the critical first year which culminates in the child walking. The interaction with significant care givers is vital in this process. As you move, the baby moves, as you speak the babies’ body echo’s the movement in a loving devotion to everything that you do. This loving bond is what calls the baby into activity. A person on a screen cannot do this. A baby cannot interpret movement on a screen. Our movement is ensouled and embodied with emotion. We move with love, with anger, with care. Every aspect of a gesture is taken in, later to be mirrored back as the child is the master of its own movements and its relationship to space. Studies show decreasing interpersonal contact time and ever increasing eye to screen time which is impacting on the development of skilled movement.

We stand upright in EQUILIBRIUM having mastered gravity and the challenges of balance. At birth the infant cannot even raise its head and yet, over the first year, gravity is conquered and uprightness achieved. An unobserved but vital part of this balancing process is the integration or working together of the two sides of the body - which culminates in a dominant side being established and with this specialization of the functions of each side of the brain. Recent research shows the detrimental effect of screen viewing on children’s motor skills development with a reduction in motivation to move. Equally importantly amongst the changes to the brain structure are reductions in the size and condition of brain cells in the orbito-frontal (thinking) part of the brain as well in the corpus callosum which is the bridge which links and unites the two sides of the brain and is vital to integration, the establishment of dominance and speed of processing information.

The second group of senses described by Rudolf Steiner have significance in relation to the life of feeling. They are awake from birth, but become refined as conscious senses during the second seven year period. These are the senses of smell, taste, vision and warmth.

(Video) How Media & Technology Affects Children | Child Development

SMELL and TASTE build our first memories in relation to our closest care givers. Our essential well-being depends on knowing whether we are hungry or not, knowing if what we take in is good or not. Screen viewing means that the metabolism is slower and fewer calories are burned. Children are more likely to be overweight. Internal cues telling us we have eaten enough are not registered and over eating is likely to result. One study has found hours of television viewing to be independently associated with percentage of body fat at seven years, every hour of additional viewing equating to an additional kilo of body weight.

VISION is represented in the brain by hundreds of thousands of light sensitive cells. Vision is a very awake sense through which we move out of ourselves to take in the form and activity of our world. Our ability to perceive depth, the form and the relationship of objects to each other, to perceive movement and to judge our own movement in relation to movement in the environment, is not innate, it must be learned. The infant learns to perceive visual space through doing - by learning to crawl, to stand, to fall and get up again, to hop, jump, run and skip and by watching the movement of important people in the environment from the earliest age. The eyes need to move in unison and independently from the head movement, for skill to develop in hand/ eye integration.

Looking at a screen of any sort requires that the viewer is able to interpret what is passively seen. Infants do not have this ability, but can be fascinated by light and colour. Eyes are static in this process of looking and the eye muscles are not exercised.

Screen viewing produces minimal brain activity, moving it into sleep mode. Even playing computer games is associated with limited neurological activity. Heavy screen viewers have been found to have fewer skills in goal directed behaviour, attention, working memory, inhibition of behaviour, problem solving and self regulation; demonstrating that the passivity of viewing does not stimulate brain growth.

The ability to create an internal picture is vital to creative thought. When we listen to a story we create our own pictures. Screen viewing gives a picture which does not encourage creativity.

The sense of WARMTH relates to both physical and emotional warmth. Children grow in loving, interactive relationship; the caregiver’s interest generates warmth and enthusiasm. Enthusiasm stimulates ideas and is mirrored back by the child in the two way process of learning. Studies have shown that over the last 20 years eye to eye contact in the home has gone down and eye to screen contact has gone up. People spend more time in front of a screen than interacting with other human beings. British children aged 11-15 spend 53 hours per week, 55 percent of their waking time, watching screen media.

(Video) How TV Affects the Brains of Young Children

The four highest senses are those which give us the possibility to be social human beings. These are the senses of hearing, word, thought and the sense of ego.

To HEAR we need to be inwardly still and quiet. The impact of screen media is very largely visual. For small children the sound may be captured and repeated but there is not time or space to create the inner pictures which give meaning and allow information to be understood and generalized. Story reading and storytelling allow the child to be inwardly creative. The emotional and thought content of what is spoken is integrated. The reader or the speaker can respond contingently to the listener.

Many children today have not learned to listen. They are unable to select and ‘tune in’ to a specific voice. Their ability to process auditory information has been affected by the dominance of visual information, ear preference is not achieved. Language development is delayed. Studies show that babies who watched programmes, such as “Baby Einstein”, had 8-10 less words at 18 months than infants who did not watch visual media programmes.

The sense of WORD is developed during the first year to 18 months through interaction with significant caregivers. As noted previously, there is a delay in language acquisition in children who are both active and passive screen viewers. When TV and other media are consistently present in the young child’s environment less time is spent in face to face interaction. A screen talks to you, but it does not respond contingently to every facial expression or utterance as a devoted parent does.

The sense of THOUGHT is the sense that gives us the possibility to interpret what others are saying. To understand the thought behind what is spoken and to be receptive to an others thoughts, we need to be able to stand in our own space as individuals, to be still, balanced and receptive, we need to be able to read the words, the gestures and the emotional content of what has been said. Studies are showing a significant decrease in empathy in today’s teenage population and a decrease in the ability to read the nuances of others verbal communication. We are becoming more self focused and moving towards behaviours descriptive of the Autism Spectrum.

Finally, the sense of EGO is the highest sense, through which we have the possibility of truly meeting and appreciating the individuality of another person, through which we see the Christ reflected.

(Video) How stereotypes in TV shows and movies may impact your child's development

The visual media is making it harder for our children to achieve the highest goal of our humanity - to be conscious, caring human beings.

Visual media induce a state of sensory deprivation - they negatively impact on development. Scientific research recognizes the first three years as especially important here. We know, however, that the development of the senses does not stop at three years and that that the journey to becoming fully human spans 21 years. The senses, all twelve, are our windows to the world and allow us connection to what is most human.

Love for the earth and love for the other -these are what will change the world. To give our
children the possibility to be fully human we need to be brave enough to change the way we live to protect them and nurture their development.

The screen media have become integral to our lives and to banish them completely from our daily working is hugely challenging. As with all that we do our consciousness is needed to protect the very small and to monitor both our own, and our children’s, viewing. One half to two hours is the recommended daily maximum for older children. For some, this will already feel too much, others will be challenged when adding time on computers, ‘iPads’ , ‘Skype’ connections, Facebook and TV to see that their current viewing is far greater than this level.

Developing understanding and raising awareness of the detrimental effects of screen viewing empowers us to make good decisions for our children, ourselves and for others in our care. ♦

Robyn Ritchie has worked as a Paediatric Occupational Therapist and Extra Lesson Therapist for more than 35 years. Rudolf Steiner’s work on the 12 senses has provided the vital impetus and inspiration for her work with children. She currently works in an Early Intervention Programme with children on the Autism Spectrum as well as with a small number of school aged children at Helios Integrative Medical Centre in Christchurch.

(Video) Impact of Tv on Child Development

1. Paediatric Occupational Therapist, Christchurch, New Zealand. (The editors thank Robyn for this article, written on request upon her return from lecturing at the New York conference of the International Society on Early Intervention, March/April 2011. In October, 2012 Robyn also spoke at another conference run by the same International Society in Perth, in association with the Asia Pacific group)

Bibliography
Healy, Jane (1999): Endangered Minds: Why Children Don’t Think And What We Can Do About It. 978-0684856209 Winn, Marie (2002): The Plug-In Drug: Television, Computers, and Family Life. Penguin 978-0142001080
Steiner, Rudolf (1981): Man as a Being of Sense and Perception. 22-24 July 1921 GA206. ISBN: 0919924115. Online: www.doyletics.com/arj/sensean.htm
The research referred to in this article comes from a presentation given by Dr Aric Sigman in August 2010. The presentation is entitled “The Impact of Screen Media on Children: A Eurovision for Parliament.”'

Some studies cited in this paper are:
1. American Academy of Paediatrics. (April 1. 2011): Guidance for the clinician: The impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents and Families.
2. Christakis, D.A. et al (2004): Early television exposure and subsequent attentionalproblems in children. Paediatrics. 113 (4):708-13
3. Ekelund U. et al (2008): European Youth Heart Study, PLoS Medicine.3(12)
4. Hancox, R.J. et al (2005): Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational achievement. Archives of Paediatric Medicine, 159: 614-18
5. Lin F. et al (2012): Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract- Based Spatial Statistics Study. PLoS ONE 7(1)e30253
6. Linn, S, Poussaint A.F. (2001): The Truth about Teletubbies. In ‘Zero to Three’.; Oct/Nov:24-29 2001
7. Pagani, L.S. et al (2010): Prospective Associations between Early Childhood Television Exposure and Academic, Psychosocial, and Physical Wellbeing by Middle Childhood. Arch Paediatric Adolescent Medicine. 164(5): 425-431
1 Available online at: http://www.ecswe.org/downloads/publications/QOC-V3/Chapter-4.pdf

FAQs

What type of impact does television have on children's development? ›

Early television watching can endanger healthy development.

Early exposure to TV has also been connected to attention disorders and sleep problems. TV use at age three has been linked to behavior problems and to long-term effects on social development, classroom engagement, and academic achievement.

What is the impact of television on children? ›

Too much screen time can also take away from reading, studying, learning activities, play, and exercise. Digital media can also show alcohol and drug use, smoking, and sexual behavior. Your child may see these things before they are emotionally ready to understand these issues. And before they can make good decisions.

How does media affect the development of a child? ›

High media usage in children is related to poorer cognition, language, and social–emotional skills. More frequent parent–child interactions are associated with better body motor, cognition, language, and social–emotional skills in children.

Does TV help children's development? ›

Watching television with your child and elaborating and commenting on what is viewed can help enhance their understanding of the content, reinforcing their learning during educational programs.

How does TV affect development? ›

Additionally, psychologists argue that the large amount of time spent watching TV threatens the cohesiveness of the family. Such negative effects may also include inhibiting children's social development by diminishing the number of conversations between them and their family members.

What are the advantages and disadvantages for children of television? ›

In conclusion, television has both benefits and drawbacks for children. Although it can help youngsters to be more aware about world around them and be an extra tool for learning foreign language it may also lead to health issues and distract from essential parts of life such as studying.

What are the impacts of television? ›

Through TV we perceive the glamorous life of people and believe that they are better off than we are. Television contributes to our education and knowledge. Documentaries and information programs give us insight on nature, our environment and political events. Television has a huge impact on politics.

How does television affect our lives? ›

How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world, there are high quality programmes that help us understand many fields of study, science, medicine, the different arts and so on.

How can television affect your health? ›

Too much screen time can lead to obesity, sleep problems, chronic neck and back problems, depression, anxiety and lower test scores in children. Children should limit screen time to 1 to 2 hours per day. Adults should also try to limit screen time outside of work hours.

What are the positive and negative effects of media? ›

While it can provide a platform for your teenagers to express themselves, develop social skills, etc., it can also have some negative effects–instilling false messages, false beliefs, violent behavior, spending too much time in front of a screen may cause health and development issues.

Does TV affect children's brain development? ›

Researchers studied kids between age 5 and 18 who watched, on average, about two hours of television a day. Brain scans revealed that the more TV a child watched, the larger certain parts of the brain were. Grey matter volume was higher in regions toward the front and side of the head in kids who watched a lot of TV...

Is social media good for children? ›

Social media can also pose risks. For your child, these risks include: being exposed to inappropriate or upsetting content, like mean aggressive, violent or sexual comments or images. uploading inappropriate content, like embarrassing or provocative photos or videos of themselves or others.

What are the benefits of television? ›

The 13 Benefits of Watching TV
  • Educational. TV has many educational benefits for children and adults. ...
  • Stay Current. TV is a source of news. ...
  • Get Cultured. TV can provide a cheap escape instead of travelling. ...
  • Crazy Fandoms are Fun. ...
  • Feel the Connection. ...
  • Family Bonding. ...
  • Learn a Language. ...
  • Mental Health.
11 Oct 2019

How does television help in education? ›

The best way we can utilize television to help them study is through informative videos, TV shows, or documentaries that teachers can show during a lecture. Students would have a much fonder and clearer memory of a lecture that is combined with an impressive video.

How does television affect children's language and communication development? ›

In addition, children who started watching television younger than 12 months old and who watched more than two hours of television each day were approximately six times more likely to develop language delays.

How does screen time affect children? ›

Screens reduce empathy

Research has shown that screen time inhibits young children's ability to read faces and learn social skills, two key factors needed to develop empathy. Face-to-face interactions are the only way young children learn to understand non-verbal cues and interpret them.

How does TV affect your brain? ›

Drawing on data spanning 20 years, he led a study published in the September issue of Brain Imaging and Behavior suggesting that greater amounts of TV viewing can lead to reduced amounts of cranial gray matter—home to the neurons that perform the bulk of our mental processing.

What are the disadvantages and disadvantages for children of television? ›

Watching TV could divert them from activities that help brain development. Watching screens can be addictive, and parents can struggle to entice children to play in other ways. Watching screens for long periods of time can lead to difficulties falling asleep, disturbed sleep patterns and other health issues.

Do you think children should watch TV? ›

Answer:- definitely, children can increase their knowledge and they can even feel delighted too because tv is a good source of entertainment.

What happens when a child watches too much TV? ›

Studies show that kids who watch too much TV are more likely to be overweight — and, depending on the content of what they see, more aggressive. Too media use is also linked to poor grades, sleep problems, and behavior problems.

What is television advantages and disadvantages? ›

Comparison Between Advantages and Disadvantages of Television
Advantages of TelevisionDisadvantages of Television
Great source of exposure to the worldWaste of time on watching too much TV
Variety of information availableEncourage violence and sex
Good for family bondingMakes isolated from society
3 more rows
16 Jan 2022

How does social media affect child development? ›

We found that the effects range from spending increasing amounts of time online, behaviour change due to anticipated judgement from peers, and sensory overload, to more serious cognitive and emotional consequences such as attention problems, stress and anxiety.

How Does TV influence people's behavior? ›

Television programs may lead to aggressive behavior and violent behavior as kids become immune to violence and they tend to imitate what is shown on television. Eventhough aggressive and violent behaviors are contributed through other channels, television is the main source which will lead to this behavior.

Does TV influence children's behavior? ›

Characters on TV and in video games often show risky behaviors — like drinking alcohol, using drugs, and smoking cigarettes — as cool, fun, and exciting. When these things seem acceptable, kids and teens might be tempted to try them. That might lead to substance abuse problems.

How did television help in the social development? ›

The article states that television can help young people discover where they fit into society, develop closer relationships with peers and family, and teach them to understand complex social aspects of communication.

How does television influence our lives essay? ›

It informs us of the most recent happenings around the world within seconds. For example, the world has seen the terrorism acts that took place in New York, the retaliation against Afghanistan, and the latest threats of Biological warfare. Through television we can be warned about almost anything.

Is television beneficial or harmful to people? ›

Watching too much television is not good for your health. Studies have shown that there is a correlation between watching television and obesity. Excessive TV watching (more than 3 hours a day) can also contribute to sleep difficulties, behavior problems, lower grades, and other health issues.

What happens when we watch too much TV? ›

Together, the researchers' findings suggest that people who self-report moderate or excessive (high) amounts of TV watching experience greater cognitive decline and reduced gray matter in their brains later in life. Gray matter is involved in decision-making, hearing and vision, and muscle control.

What is the negative effect of television in communication? ›

negative-It has an effect on the eyes and causes headaches. The radiations emitted by television are harmful to the eyes. Prolonged exposure to the same can result in vision loss. Because of the harmful radiation, excessive TV viewing can cause headaches.

What are the 5 media effects? ›

These six are cognition, belief, attitude, affect, physiology, and behavior. All individual-level media effects studies examine how the media exert an influence on one or more of these six types.

What are the positive effects of social media on children? ›

Social media can have a positive effect on your child like helping them learn how to communicate with others, navigate relationships and how to manage somebody who isn't being kind to them.

Is screen time good for children? ›

With moderation, there are some benefits of screen time to children: educational value and school-related homework and research. playing video games can improve motor skills and coordination. internet tools, texting, and shared video games are easy and fun ways to socialize and communicate.

Is television affecting children's way of thinking essay? ›

What these parents do not realize is that many problems may occur from their children watching excessive amounts of TV. Problems such as loss of creativity , increased amounts of laziness and sudden violent attitudes and/or actions may result. Creativity is an important trait for a young child to have.

How does screen time affect education? ›

One study conducted by the National Institutes of Health found that children who spent over two hours a day on their screens received lower scores on language and critical thinking tests. Additionally, MRI scans of children who spent over seven hours of screen time per day saw a thinning of their brains' cortex.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of social media? ›

Top 10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media
Pros of Social MediaCons of Social Media
People Can Connect Through Social MediaReduces Face-to-face Communication Skills
Good Source of Up-to-Date InformationFake News
Social Media Is Beneficial to EducationPeople's Addiction to Social Media
7 more rows
14 Jun 2022

What are the positive and negative effects of social media on youth? ›

Social media use may expose teens to peer pressure, cyberbullying, and increased mental health risk. But, social media can also connect isolated teens and help them find supportive networks. Parents can set limitations and communicate openly with teens about healthy social media use.

Is social media beneficial or harmful? ›

Since it's a relatively new technology, there's little research to establish the long-term consequences, good or bad, of social media use. However, multiple studies have found a strong link between heavy social media and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, self-harm, and even suicidal thoughts.

What is the importance of television in communication? ›

Television facilitates one-way communication between the sender and the receiver. This allows the sender to persuade, entertain, inform and empower the audience.

What is the purpose of TV shows? ›

Some are for entertainment, some are for education. Depends on the show. But they are mainly to make money for the people who own them and their networks.

What are the advantages of television essay? ›

Benefits of Watching Television

As they are very affordable, everyone can now own television and get access to entertainment. In addition, it keeps us updated on the latest happenings of the world. It is now possible to get news from the other corner of the world.

How television can promote good moral values in the development of a child? ›

They found that, in some instances, viewing a television show positively influenced children's sense of fairness and right and wrong, such as with theft or interpersonal violence.

What is an example of educational television? ›

The presence of edutainment is especially evident in children's television series, such as Sesame Street, Teletubbies, and Dora the Explorer. Discovery Channel is also known for its various shows that follow that theme, including MythBusters.

Why is television a good source of entertainment? ›

Even though there are many entertainment options today, TV remains the best source of entertainment for many people. It helps us connect with others, a break from our daily lives, and slow down the pace of our lives.

Why is television good for kids? ›

Television can teach kids important values and life lessons. Educational programming can develop young children's socialization and learning skills. News, current events and historical programming can help make young people more aware of other cultures and people.

How does television affect children's learning? ›

Studies have found that television exposure to young children could effects their language and cognitive development, lead to behavior problems, attention disorder, aggression and obesity.

How does TV affect children's education? ›

Television watching does not support the processes of healthy infant brain development, which requires babies to explore, play and engage with family members. If these activities are replaced with passive television viewing, it can have long-term, negative effects on academic performance.

Does TV affect children's brain development? ›

Researchers studied kids between age 5 and 18 who watched, on average, about two hours of television a day. Brain scans revealed that the more TV a child watched, the larger certain parts of the brain were. Grey matter volume was higher in regions toward the front and side of the head in kids who watched a lot of TV...

What is the negative impact of television? ›

A study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health indicates that watching too much television can significantly increase the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes.

How does watching TV affect children's brains? ›

According to TIME, some of these effects may include increased risk for ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), delayed language development, decreased cognitive skills as well as an overall lower IQ score. Parents are often concerned about what is too much tv doing to their child.

What are the negative effects of watching television? ›

Too much screen time can lead to obesity, sleep problems, chronic neck and back problems, depression, anxiety and lower test scores in children. Children should limit screen time to 1 to 2 hours per day. Adults should also try to limit screen time outside of work hours.

What happens when children watch too much TV? ›

Studies show that kids who watch too much TV are more likely to be overweight — and, depending on the content of what they see, more aggressive. Too media use is also linked to poor grades, sleep problems, and behavior problems.

How does screen time affect child development? ›

Screens reduce empathy

Research has shown that screen time inhibits young children's ability to read faces and learn social skills, two key factors needed to develop empathy. Face-to-face interactions are the only way young children learn to understand non-verbal cues and interpret them.

How does television affect children's language and communication development? ›

In addition, children who started watching television younger than 12 months old and who watched more than two hours of television each day were approximately six times more likely to develop language delays.

How does watching TV affect your brain? ›

Drawing on data spanning 20 years, he led a study published in the September issue of Brain Imaging and Behavior suggesting that greater amounts of TV viewing can lead to reduced amounts of cranial gray matter—home to the neurons that perform the bulk of our mental processing.

Do you think children should watch TV? ›

Answer:- definitely, children can increase their knowledge and they can even feel delighted too because tv is a good source of entertainment.

Is watching TV good for you? ›

It's no surprise that the sedentary behavior of binge-watching TV can negatively impact our physical health, but recent studies show it's also a bad habit for long-term brain health and function.

Is television affecting children's way of thinking essay? ›

What these parents do not realize is that many problems may occur from their children watching excessive amounts of TV. Problems such as loss of creativity , increased amounts of laziness and sudden violent attitudes and/or actions may result. Creativity is an important trait for a young child to have.

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